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MTVLab: Pioneering DevOps Cloud Training

Version Controlling with Terraform: A Collaboration Approach to Infrastructure

By Rajesh Gheware


In the rapidly evolving world of cloud computing and infrastructure management, Terraform has emerged as a powerful tool for defining and managing infrastructure as code (IAC). However, the real power of Terraform comes into play when combined with version control systems (VCS). This approach not only enhances collaboration among teams but also contributes to a more efficient and error-free deployment process.

This article delves into the practices of integrating Terraform with version control, focusing on strategies that foster collaboration and efficiency in managing infrastructure.

Understanding the Need for Version Control in Terraform

Terraform enables us to describe our infrastructure in code form. This inherently implies that changes in infrastructure are managed just like changes in any software development process. Version control systems like Git provide a framework for managing these changes, ensuring that teams can work collaboratively without overwriting each other’s work, maintaining a history of changes, and enabling rollback if needed.

Key Benefits:

  1. Collaboration: Multiple team members can work on infrastructure changes concurrently.
  2. Change Tracking: Every change is documented, making it easier to track and understand the evolution of your infrastructure.
  3. Rollback Mechanisms: In case of errors, you can easily revert to previous versions of your infrastructure setup.
  4. Review and Audit Trails: Changes can be reviewed by peers before applying, ensuring higher quality and compliance.

Setting Up Terraform with Version Control


  • Basic understanding of Terraform syntax and operations.
  • Familiarity with a version control system, preferably Git.


  1. Initialize a Terraform Project: Start by creating a new directory for your Terraform project and initializing it using terraform init.
  2. Connect to Version Control: Create a new repository in your version control system and link your Terraform project directory to this repository.
  3. Create Terraform Configuration Files: Write your Terraform configuration files (*.tf) to define your desired infrastructure.
  4. Commit and Push Changes: Regularly commit your changes to your version control system. Include descriptive commit messages to document what each change does.
  5. Branching Strategy: Adopt a branching strategy (e.g., feature branching, Git flow) that suits your team’s workflow. This will help in managing different development stages and parallel development.
  6. Code Reviews and Merge Requests: Implement a process for reviewing Terraform changes through merge requests or pull requests. This ensures that changes are vetted by team members before being applied.
  7. Manage State File Securely: Terraform’s state file is crucial as it holds the current state of your infrastructure. Store it securely, possibly in a remote backend like AWS S3, and manage access strictly.

Best Practices for Collaborative Terraform Version Control

1. Modularize Terraform Code

  • Why?: Modularization makes the code more manageable, reusable, and understandable. It allows different teams to work on different modules without conflicts.
  • How?: Break down your infrastructure into logical modules (e.g., network, compute, storage) and manage them as separate units.

2. Implement a Robust Naming Convention

  • Why?: Consistent naming conventions make it easier to understand and navigate the codebase, especially for new team members.
  • How?: Define and document a naming convention that covers resources, variables, modules, and any other Terraform elements.

3. Documenting Terraform Code

  • Why?: Documentation helps in maintaining clarity about the infrastructure setup and the purpose of various components.
  • How?: Use comments within the Terraform files to explain the purpose and functionality of the code. Additionally, maintain external documentation for complex setups.

4. Version Pinning

  • Why?: Pinning software and provider versions ensures consistency and prevents unexpected changes due to updates.
  • How?: Specify exact or minimum versions for Terraform providers and modules to avoid compatibility issues.

5. Regularly Refactor and Update

  • Why?: Regular refactoring keeps the codebase efficient, up-to-date, and easier to manage.
  • How?: Schedule periodic reviews of the code to refactor and update as necessary, considering new Terraform features or improved practices.

6. Secure Sensitive Data

  • Why?: Sensitive data like passwords or API keys should not be exposed in your Terraform code.
  • How?: Use Terraform’s variable files for sensitive data and avoid hardcoding them. Consider integrating with a secrets management tool like HashiCorp Vault.

7. Continuous Learning and Skill Development

  • Why?: Terraform and cloud technologies are constantly evolving. Staying updated is crucial for efficient and secure infrastructure management.
  • How?: Encourage continuous learning within your team. Regular training sessions, workshops, and attending webinars or conferences can be beneficial.


Incorporating version control in Terraform is more than a technical necessity; it’s a strategic approach to infrastructure management. It aligns with the principles of DevOps, fostering collaboration, efficiency, and a culture of continuous improvement. As teams grow and infrastructure becomes more complex, the practices outlined in this article will not only prevent chaos but will also pave the way for a scalable, manageable, and secure cloud infrastructure.

Remember, the key to success in this approach is not just about the tools but the processes and culture around them. It’s about making sure that every member of the team is part of the conversation and that your infrastructure evolves in a way that supports your business goals and innovation strategies.


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